Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This cross-sectional online study was conducted in Israel among adults aged 20—45 who responded to an advertisement posted on several social media platforms. Respondents received a link for the survey after ing informed consent forms. Responses were recorded on a 1—4 Likert scale.
There were ificant differences among dietary patterns in all three components. Unhealthy diets are an underlying cause of undernutrition, overweight, and obesity, contributing to non-communicable diseases and consequential mortality.
These effects are interrelated with climate change [ 12 ].
For example, the obesity epidemic impacts climate change by the elevated energy consumption and consumption of high-energy foods; those in turn have been shown to be a major contributor to Greenhouse Gas GHG emissions [ 3 ]. Climate change impacts obesity by food supply changes, motorized transportation and physical inactivity due to extremes of weather. Climate change impacts food availability, contributing to undernutrition [ 4 ].
Simultaneously, excess human-made environmental processes take place, including massive urbanization, deforestation, and industrialization. All of these contribute to climate change and thus endanger the sustainability of food systems [ 5 ].
Mapping young adults’ concerns and attitudes toward food-related sustainability issues in israel: implications for food policy
Common underlying societal factors may interact as barriers to or become opportunities for achieving changes [ 2 ]. This fact led the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO to advocate for the integration of healthy and sustainable food consumption advice into food-based national dietary guidelines [ 7 ].
Indeed, an increasing of countries have already addressed this recommendation [ 89 ]. Numerous countries have examined how to adjust their local environments and policies to meet those recommendations, including Israel [ 10111213 ]. Implementing these recommendations within public health policy is still an issue [ 214 ].
Thus, it must be acknowledged that, like other social determinants that affect the development of obesity, personal food choices are influenced by upstream societal factors, which interact with individual factors to shape individual food consumption. Factors such as urbanization, changes in the types of employment, alterations to the food supply, policies, local legislation, trade agreements, and food taxes influence the availability and accessibility of the food from which individuals can eventually choose [ 8 ].
To date, different strategies have been suggested and implemented to achieve this goal.
Some strategies, aimed at consumers, provide information to guide healthy food choices at the point of purchase. These include front-of-package labeling and mandated nutrition information [ 161718 ]. Additional downstream interventions include economic incentives e.
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A better understanding of the perceptions and beliefs that drive the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is essential for deing effective policies. Many studies focus on shifts in motivation and attitudes toward a healthy diet; however, there are few studies regarding motivation and attitudes for adopting more sustainable diets. These studies determined that beliefs about the impact of food on the climate correlate with the motivation to change dietary habits toward more sustainable ones Beer sheva label adult products online 2223 ]. Hence, when deing strategies, focusing on knowledge is insufficient for generating actions, and, as studies show, changing beliefs is more ificant for achieving this goal [ 24 ].
Therefore, strategies should focus on both knowledge and changing beliefs. Additional issues that play a role in forming beliefs and motivation for change include assessments of trust and credibility regarding scientists and other experts, perceptions of the role of government, and questions of individual versus collective responsibility [ 25 ].
These perceptions define how arguments regarding the impact of food choices on climate change are received and how these arguments interact with cultural and structural factors to shape the likelihood of behavior change.
We asked what the main concerns of young adults with regard to food-related sustainability issues were, to what extent they were willing to take action, and what actions they expected from their leaders. The present cross-sectional survey was conducted online using a convenience sample. The study population included all adult individuals who elected to complete the survey online and who provided informed consent following a phone interview.
The purposes of the phone interview were the Beer sheva label adult products online screening of respondents according to pre-defined subpopulations, and giving specific instruction on how to fill in the questionnaires. The survey was posted to public and personal social media s and published in deated forums. Using personal connections and snowballing methodology, we approached subpopulations such as vegans and vegetarians; secular, orthodox Jews, and ultra-orthodox Jews independent streams in Judaism differ by degrees of religiosity, self-identified ; rural and urban participants; and potential respondents with various environmental orientations.
Although this was a convenience sample, we aimed for the study sample to be representative. Once achieving the representative sample for a sector, we excluded respondents from this sector at the phone interview. Individuals could respond after a phone interview with the study coordinator. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Tel-Hai College, and all participants ed an informed consent form after the interview. Participants received an link to the questionnaire. The data were extracted into a CSV format and submitted for statistical analysis after quality assurance.
Sociodemographic and personal data included age, sex, employment status, marital status, academic education, religious identification, car ownership, smoking habits, weight status self-reportedphysical activity, and eating patterns. Physical activity included indoor and outdoor activity, both aerobic and anaerobic, reported as total hours per week. Eating patterns were self-reported as vegan, vegetarian, flexitarian, omnivorous, and highly animal-based diets, namely, ketogenic and paleo variations. The eating patterns were validated using food frequency questionnaires.
Pescatarians were classified as flexitarians. The questionnaire included three parts: 1. The food-related sustainability concern items were based on Grunert et al. The items related to perceptions and attitudes surrounding actions taken to improve food-related health and sustainability items were modified from Van Loo et al. These 17 items were asked twice. The modifications of the questionnaires addressed the relatively low awareness of the word sustainability in Israel, and included a brief introduction on the definition of sustainability and an explanation of some questions. The item on food safety was also explained.
The questionnaires were translated and modified toward Israeli Beer sheva label adult products online.
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Face validity was tested in order to check whether the items appeared to be measuring a construct that was meaningful to the respondents by three experts. To calculate the dietary intake of animal-based and plant-based protein, we used the food frequency questionnaire FFQ adapted for the Israeli population. The adaption and validation process for this questionnaire is described in detail elsewhere [ 2829 ].
Of the total protein intake calculated from the FFQ, we computed the percent intakes of animal- and plant-based protein. The questionnaire was self-administered electronically, thus ensuring completeness of data, as submitting the questionnaire was not possible if any of the items were not answered. The distributions of continuous variables were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov—Smirnov test. Continuous variables are described as means and standard deviations. Associations between nominal variables were assessed using the chi-square test.
For the comparison of mean scores, two-sample Wilcoxon rank tests or t -tests were used as appropriate. ANOVA was used to compare different dietary patterns.
The survey included participants. The characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. The living conditions and urbanization levels of the study Beer sheva label adult products online were representative of the Israeli population. Total of 2 refused to answer. The composite means of each of the questionnaires—concerns, self, and leaders—were associated with most of the demographic characteristics—gender, marital status, education, age, eating preferences, and drinking patterns the frequency of drinking sugar-sweetened beverages and frequency of drinking low-calorie beverages.
Overall, in terms of concerns, no gender differences were found, except for three items for which women were more concerned than men Table 2. Score per item ranged from 1 to 4; overall, the total score for concerns ranged from X to Y. Next, we examined the association between eating patterns and food-related sustainability concerns. Food-related sustainability concerns by eating patterns. Beer sheva label adult products online are in the Supplementary Table S1. The participants were mostly motivated to take action on issues regarding health, food waste, and animal welfare, and least motivated on environmental issues.
In general, higher scores for action were given to public leaders in comparison to the personal level. In both domains, the lowest scores were given to energy for storing, cooking, transportation, and deforestation. Perceptions of the importance of taking action on different aspects of food-related sustainability.
The willingness to act differed according to the self-reported eating patterns. Generally, omnivores ranked most of the items lower than participants with other eating patterns. Only ificant items are shown. Items not included are employment of minors in the food industry, food prices, the quality of public health services, food safety, and energy for storing, cooking, and transporting. Table 3 presents the characteristics of the participants by dietary patterns.
The consumers of animal-based food were more physically active, and a higher percentage of them were employed and secular compared to omnivores and flexitarians.
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No differences in weight and smoking status were found. The source of animal protein for vegetarians is dairy products. SD: Standard Deviation. Our findings demonstrate that the participants perceive that it is highly important that policy makers act to promote sustainable food systems and, to a lesser extent, the importance of individual action. We have found that people were most concerned about food waste, the use of non-recyclable packages, and the environmental impact of the human use of lands and water for food production. They were the least concerned about the amount of energy used for transporting, storing, and cooking food products.
research using similar items found somewhat different levels of concerns. Annunziata et al. Grunert et al. Overall, the total mean score of concerns was higher in studies conducted in Europe compared to ours. This may imply that people in Europe are more aware and concerned about food-related sustainability issues.